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Auteur Larrieu, L.; Paillet, Y.; Winter, S.; Bütler, R.; Kraus, D.; Krumm, F.; Lachat, T.; Michel, A. K.; Regnery, B.; Vandekerkhove, K. openurl 
  Titre Tree related microhabitats in temperate and Mediterranean European forests: a hierarchical typology for inventory standardization Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Ecological Indicators Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 84 Numéro Pages 194-207  
  Mots-Clés Biodiversity conservation; Integrative forest management; Monitoring Forest inventory; Tree structure; Wildlife habitat relationship  
  Résumé Tree related Microhabitats (hereafter TreMs) have been widely recognized as important substrates and structures for biodiversity in both commercial and protected forests and are receiving increasing attention in management, conservation and research. How to record TreMs in forest inventories is a question of recent interest since TreMs represent potential indirect indicators for the specialized species that use them as substrates or habitat at least for a part of their life-cycle. However, there is a wide range of differing interpretations as to what

exactly constitutes a TreM and what specific features should be surveyed in the field.

In an attempt to harmonize future TreM inventories, we propose a definition and a typology of TreM types borne by living and dead standing trees in temperate and Mediterranean forests in Europe. Our aim is to provide users with definitions which make unequivocal TreM determination possible. Our typology is structured around seven basic forms according to morphological characteristics and biodiversity relevance: i) cavities lato sensu, ii) tree injuries and exposed wood, iii) crown deadwood, iv) excrescences, v) fruiting bodies of saproxylic fungi and fungi-like organisms, vi) epiphytic and epixylic structures, and vii) exudates. The typology is then further detailed into 15 groups and 47 types with a hierarchical structure allowing the typology to be used for different purposes. The typology, along with guidelines for standardized recording we propose, is an unprecedented reference tool to make data on TreMs comparable across different regions, forest types and tree species, and should greatly improve the reliability of TreM monitoring. It provides the basis for compiling these data and may help to improve the reliability of reporting and evaluation of the conservation value of forests. Finally, our work emphasizes the need for further research on TreMs to better understand their dynamics and their link with biodiversity in order to more fully integrate TreM monitoring into forest management.
 
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  ISSN ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ yoan.paillet @ collection 1590  
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Auteur Abourachid, A.; Fabre, A.-C.; Cornette, R.; Hofling, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Foot shape in arboreal birds: two morphological patterns for the same pincer-like tool Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Anatomy Revue Abrégée J Anat  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés feet; functional morphology; grasping; osteology  
  Résumé The feet are the only contact between the body and the substrate in limbed animals and as such they provide a crucial interface between the animal and its environment. This is especially true for bipedal and arboreal species living in a complex three-dimensional environment that likely induces strong selection on foot morphology. In birds, foot morphology is highly variable, with different orientations of the toes, making it a good model for the study of the role of functional, developmental, and phylogenetic constraints in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Our data on the proportions of the phalanges analyzed in a phylogenetic context show that two different morphological patterns exist that depend mainly on habitat and toe orientation. In the anisodactyl foot, the hallux is the only backward-oriented toe and is enlarged in climbing species and reduced in terrestrial ones. Moreover, a proximo-distal gradient in phalanx size is observed depending on the degree of terrestriality. In the two other cases (heterodactyl and zygodactyl) that have two toes that point backward, the hallux is rather small in contrast to the other backward-pointing toe, which is enlarged. The first pattern is convergent and common among tetrapods and follows rules of skeletal development. The second pattern is unique for the clade and under muscle-morphogenetic control. In all cases, the functional result is the same tool, a pincer-like foot.  
  Adresse Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8782 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes PMID:28542878 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel mnhn @ acfabre @ collection 1539  
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Auteur Aziz, S.A.; Clements, G.R.; Giam, X.; Forget, P.-M.; Campos-Arceiz, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Coexistence and Conflict between the Island Flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) and Humans on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Human Ecology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 45 Numéro 3 Pages 377-389  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé As tropical landscapes become increasingly human-dominated, conflicts between people and wildlife threaten ecological processes. Old World fruit bats such as flying foxes are especially susceptible to extinction risk because there is low interest in their conservation, particularly when they are considered pests. In order to arrest fruit bat declines, there is an urgent need to understand human-bat conflict and its implications. On a tropical island in Peninsular Malaysia, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate coexistence between people and the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus). Among 119 respondents, knowledge of ecosystem services provided by flying foxes was extremely low. Most respondents held negative attitudes towards the bats, and older male locals were more likely to support killing them. This was also true for older owners of fruit trees who derived income from selling fruit, and experienced flying fox raids. Our results can be used to design appropriate interventions to support conservation efforts, and has important implications for managing conflicts between humans and synanthropic wildlife.  
  Adresse  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1572-9915 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ pmf @ Aziz2017 collection 1580  
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Auteur Aziz, S.A.; Clements, G.R.; Giam, X.; Forget, P.-M.; Campos-Arceiz, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Erratum to: Coexistence and Conflict between the Island Flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) and Humans on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Human Ecology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 45 Numéro 3 Pages 391-391  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé  
  Adresse  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1572-9915 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ pmf @ Aziz2017 collection 1581  
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Auteur Aziz, S.A.; Clements, G.R.; Peng, L.Y.; Campos-Arceiz, A.; McConkey, K.R.; Forget, P.-M.; Gan, H.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Elucidating the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) in Peninsular Malaysia through Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication PeerJ Revue Abrégée PeerJ  
  Volume 5 Numéro Pages e3176  
  Mots-Clés Amplicon; rbcL; Pteropodid; Fruit bat; Metabarcoding; Phytophagous; Frugivory; Nectarivory  
  Résumé There is an urgent need to identify and understand the ecosystem services of pollination and seed dispersal provided by threatened mammals such as flying foxes. The first step towards this is to obtain comprehensive data on their diet. However, the volant and nocturnal nature of bats presents a particularly challenging situation, and conventional microhistological approaches to studying their diet can be laborious and time-consuming, and provide incomplete information. We used Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) as a novel, non-invasive method for analysing the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia. Through DNA metabarcoding of plants in flying fox droppings, using primers targeting the rbcL gene, we identified at least 29 Operationally Taxonomic Units (OTUs) comprising the diet of this giant pteropodid. OTU sequences matched at least four genera and 14 plant families from online reference databases based on a conservative Least Common Ancestor approach, and eight species from our site-specific plant reference collection. NGS was just as successful as conventional microhistological analysis in detecting plant taxa from droppings, but also uncovered six additional plant taxa. The island flying fox's diet appeared to be dominated by figs (Ficus sp.), which was the most abundant plant taxon detected in the droppings every single month. Our study has shown that NGS can add value to the conventional microhistological approach in identifying food plant species from flying fox droppings. At this point in time, more accurate genus- and species-level identification of OTUs not only requires support from databases with more representative sequences of relevant plant DNA, but probably necessitates in situ collection of plant specimens to create a reference collection. Although this method cannot be used to quantify true abundance or proportion of plant species, nor plant parts consumed, it ultimately provides a very important first step towards identifying plant taxa and spatio-temporal patterns in flying fox diets.  
  Adresse  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur Coltman, D.  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ pmf @ collection 1558  
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Auteur Botton-Divet, L.; Cornette, R.; Houssaye, A.; Fabre, A.-C.; Herrel, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Swimming and running: a study of the convergence in long bone morphology among semi-aquatic mustelids (Carnivora: Mustelidae) Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Biological Journal of the Linnean Society Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 121 Numéro 1 Pages 38-49  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé  
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  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0024-4066 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel CNRS @ houssaye @ collection 1551  
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Auteur Böhmer, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in the mouse: towards a universal model for Synapsida Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Zoological Letters Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 3 Numéro 8 Pages 1-11  
  Mots-Clés Axial skeleton, Evolution, Mammalia, Regulatory genes, Phenotypic variation  
  Résumé Background: The importance of the cervical vertebrae as part of the skull�neck system in facilitating the success and diversity of tetrapods is clear. The reconstruction of its evolution, however, is problematic because of the variation in the number of vertebrae, making it difficult to identify homologous elements. Quantification of the morphological differentiation in the neck of diverse archosaurs established homologous units of vertebrae (i.e. modules) resulting from Hox gene expression patterns within the cervical vertebral column. The present study aims to investigate the modularity of the cervical vertebral column in the mouse and to reveal the genetic patterns and changes underlying the evolution of the neck of modern mammals and their extinct relatives. In contrast to modern mammals, non-mammalian synapsids are characterized by a variable cervical count, the presence of free cervical ribs and the presence of a separate CV1 centrum. How might these evolutionary modifications be associated with changes in the Hox code?

Results: In combination with up-to-date information on cervical Hox gene expression including description of the vertebral phenotype of Hox knock-out mutants, the 3D landmark-based geometric morphometric approach demonstrates a correlation between Hox code and vertebral morphology in the mouse. There is evidence that the modularity of the neck of the mouse had already been established in the last common ancestor of mammals, but differed from that of non-mammalian synapsids. The differences that likely occurred during the evolution of synapsids

include an anterior shift in HoxA-5 expression in relation to the reduction of cervical ribs and an anterior shift in HoxD-4 expression linked to the development of the highly differentiated atlas-axis complex, whereas the remaining Hox genes

may have displayed a pattern similar to that in mammals on the basis of the high level of conservatism in the axial skeleton of this lineage.

Conclusion: Thus, the mouse Hox code provides a model for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the great morphological adaptability of the cervical vertebral column in Synapsida. However, more studies in non-model organisms are required to further elucidate the evolutionary role of Hox genes in

axial patterning of the unique mammalian body plan.
 
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ christine.boehmer @ collection 1568  
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Auteur Böhmer, C.; Böhmer, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Shape variation in the craniomandibular system and prevalence of dental problems in domestic rabbits: a case study in Evolutionary Veterinary Science Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Veterinary Sciences Revue Abrégée Vet Sci  
  Volume 4 Numéro 5 Pages 1-25  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect that has not been considered thoroughly to date is the effect of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in skull morphology. Therefore, we conducted a geometric morphometric analysis on skull radiological images of wild and pet rabbits in order to quantify intraspecific variation in craniomandibular morphology. The statistical analyses reveal a significant morphological differentiation of the craniomandibular system between both groups. Furthermore, the analysis of covariance shows that the force-generating modules (cranium and mandible) vary independently from the force-receiving module (hypselodont teeth) in pet rabbits, which is in contrast to their wild relatives. Our findings suggest that the phenotypic changes in domestic rabbits impact mastication performance and, consequently, oral health. An adequate close-to-nature nutrition throughout the whole life and especially beginning early parallel to weaning (phase of increased phenotypic plasticity) is necessary to ensure a normal strain on the teeth by promoting physiological lateral gliding movements and avoiding direct axial loads.  
  Adresse UMR 7179 CNRS-MNHN  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ christine.boehmer @ collection 1534  
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Auteur Böhmer, C.; Werneburg, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Deep time perspective on turtle neck evolution: chasing the Hox code by vertebral morphology Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Scientific Reports Revue Abrégée Sci Rep  
  Volume 7 Numéro 1 Pages 8939  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé The unparalleled ability of turtle neck retraction is possible in three different modes, which characterize stem turtles, living side-necked (Pleurodira), and hidden-necked (Cryptodira) turtles, respectively. Despite the conservatism in vertebral count among turtles, there is significant functional and morphological regionalization in the cervical vertebral column. Since Hox genes play a fundamental role in determining the differentiation in vertebra morphology and based on our reconstruction of evolutionary genetics in deep time, we hypothesize genetic differences among the turtle groups and between turtles and other land vertebrates. We correlated anterior Hox gene expression and the quantifiable shape of the vertebrae to investigate the morphological modularity in the neck across living and extinct turtles. This permitted the reconstruction of the hypothetical ancestral Hox code pattern of the whole turtle clade. The scenario of the evolution of axial patterning in turtles indicates shifts in the spatial expression of HoxA-5 in relation to the reduction of cervical ribs in modern turtles and of HoxB-5 linked with a lower morphological differentiation between the anterior cervical vertebrae observed in cryptodirans. By comparison with the mammalian pattern, we illustrate how the fixed count of eight cervical vertebrae in turtles resulted from the emergence of the unique turtle shell.  
  Adresse Museum fur Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut fur Evolutions- und Biodiversitatsforschung an der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115, Berlin, Germany. ingmar.werneburg@senckenberg.de  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes PMID:28827543; PMCID:PMC5566328 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ christine.boehmer @ collection 1587  
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Auteur Chaise L.L., Paterson W., Laske T.G., Gallon S.L., McCafferty D.J., Théry M., Ancel A. & Gilbert C. doi  openurl
  Titre Implantation of subcutaneous heart rate data loggers in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Polar Biology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Unlike most phocid species (Phocidae), Mirounga

leonina (southern elephant seals) experience a

catastrophic moult where they not only replace their hair

but also their epidermis when ashore for approximately

1 month. Few studies have investigated behavioural and

physiological adaptations of southern elephant seals during

the moult fast, a particularly energetically costly life

cycle�s phase. Recording heart rate is a reliable technique

for estimating energy expenditure in the field. For the first

time, subcutaneous heart rate data loggers were successfully

implanted during the moult in two free-ranging

southern elephant seals over 3�6 days. No substantial

postoperative complications were encountered and consistent

heart rate data were obtained. This promising surgical

technique opens new opportunities for monitoring heart

rate in phocid seals.
 
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  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
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  Numéro d'Appel CNRS @ thery @ collection 1583  
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Auteur Dracxler, C.M.; Forget, P.-M. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Seed caching by rodents favours seedling establishment of two palm species in a lowland Atlantic forest remnant Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Tropical Ecology  
  Volume 33 Numéro 3 Pages 228-231  
  Mots-Clés Arecaceae; Astrocaryum; Attalea; hoarding; scatter-hoarders; seed burial; seed dispersal; seedling recruitment  
  Résumé Abstract: Scatter-hoarding by rodents is expected to benefit palm recruitment by allowing cached seeds to escape predation and to colonize new areas, but evidence that seedlings emerge from cached seeds is scarce. We aimed to assess to what extent seedling establishment of two palm species (Astrocaryum aculeatissimum and Attalea humilis) is favoured by seed caching by rodents in a large Atlantic Forest remnant. We mapped the location of conspecific seedlings within circular plots of 15-m radius around five adult individuals of each palm species, checking if seedlings established from dispersed (>2 m from parent palms) or non-dispersed seeds (0-2 m from parent palms), and from buried or unburied seeds. We found a total of 42 A. aculeatissimum seedlings and 16 A. humilis seedlings. Nearly all (98%) seedlings established from seeds dispersed away from parents (mainly located 10-15 m from parents), and 83% and 75% of seedlings of A. aculeatissimum and A. humilis, respectively, established from seeds buried in the soil. Results show that both palm species depend almost entirely on caching of seeds by rodents to establish seedlings. Our study suggests that checking for endocarps associated with established seedlings can accurately estimate the process behind seedling establishment, improving our understanding about the net outcome of seed caching for large-seeded palms.  
  Adresse  
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  Editeur Cambridge University Press Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition 2017/06/13  
  ISSN 0266-4674 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ pmf @ collection 1567  
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Auteur Fabre, A.-C.; Marigó, J.; Granatosky, M.C.; Schmitt, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Functional associations between support use and forelimb shape in strepsirrhines and their relevance to inferring locomotor behavior in early primates Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Human Evolution Revue Abrégée Journal of Human Evolution  
  Volume 108 Numéro Pages 11-30  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé  
  Adresse  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0047-2484 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel mnhn @ acfabre @ collection 1549  
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Auteur Hambuckers, J.; Dauvrin, A.; Trolliet, F.; Evrard, Q.; Forget, P.-M.; Hambuckers, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre How can seed removal rates of zoochoric tree species be assessed quickly and accurately? Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Forest Ecology and Management Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 403 Numéro Pages 152-160  
  Mots-Clés Afzelia bipindensis; Dialium pachyphyllum/Dialium zenkeri; Xylopia staudtii; Bootstrap; Mean squared error (MSE)  
  Résumé Abstract

The quantification of seed dispersal and predation processes has been gaining increased importance in the assessment of forest responses to anthropogenic disturbance, but also in developing an understanding of forest dynamics facing particular reproductive strategies. Seed removal rate is a reliable estimator of animal activities relating to these processes and can be quickly and easily estimated using a rapid assessment method (RAM) described by Lermyte and Forget (2009) and Boissier et al. (2014). This method consists in selecting trees reaching a given fruit crop in plots of interest and estimating, under each tree, the proportion of removed seeds in a single quadrat among the places having the highest crops; the proportion of removed seeds is obtained by enumeration of fruit scraps and intact fruits and estimation of their seed contents. The objective of this work is to evaluate the reliability of this method and to propose alternative estimation protocols (APs) in order to obtain an index of animal interaction with seeds. To do so, we estimated produced and removed seed numbers in up to 30 random 1 sq.m. quadrats under a total of 19 trees of Afzelia bipindensis, Dialium pachyphyllum/zenkeri and Xylopia staudtii. Secondly, we investigated the influence of tree size and fruit production on seed removal rate using a generalized linear mixed model. Thirdly, we used a generalized linear mixed model and a bootstrap procedure to test if RAM and APs are biased. Then, we compared their accuracy throughout their mean squared error, also obtained with a bootstrap approach. Despite its interesting accuracy, we showed that the RAM is positively biased. Removal rate was obviously influenced by canopy size and fruit production whereas the quadrats with higher fruit production have higher seed removal rates. Thus, trees with representative sizes and crops of the studied plots have to be sampled. Secondly, as an AP, random selection of several quadrats was found to be the best method. Based on these results, we recommend using the mean of three random quadrats per tree to estimate seed removal rate. It is an unbiased estimator, more accurate and more time efficient than the RAM. However, attention should be paid to select a proper quadrat size, in line with seed and fruit numbers, since the accuracy of the methods depends on these quantities. Such a choice could be made using a mean squared error criterion obtained from a preliminary intensive sampling of some specimens of the focal species.
 
  Adresse  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0378-1127 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ pmf @ collection 1577  
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Auteur Heiss, E.; Handschuh, S.; Aerts, P.; Van Wassenbergh, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre A tongue for all seasons: extreme phenotypic flexibility in salamandrid newts Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 7 Numéro 1006 Pages  
  Mots-Clés Biomechanics, Herpetology  
  Résumé Many organisms faced with seasonally fluctuating abiotic and biotic conditions respond by altering their phenotype to account for the demands of environmental changes. Here we discovered that newts, which switch seasonally between an aquatic and terrestrial lifestyle, grow a complex adhesive system on their tongue pad consisting of slender lingual papillae and mucus-producing cells to increase the efficiency of prey capture as they move from water onto land. The adhesive system is reduced again as newts switch back to their aquatic stage, where they use suction to capture prey. As suction performance is also enhanced seasonally by reshaping of the mouth due to the growth of labial lobes, our results show that newts are exceptional in exhibiting phenotypic flexibility in two alternating components (i.e. tongue pad and labial lobes) within a single functional system, and suggest that this form of phenotypic flexibility demands complex genetic regulation.  
  Adresse  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel mnhn @ svanwassenbergh @ collection 1537  
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Auteur Landes, J.; Perret, M.; Hardy, I.; Camarda, C.G.; Henry, P.-Y.; Pavard, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre State transitions: a major mortality risk for seasonal species Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Ecology Letters Revue Abrégée Ecol Lett  
  Volume 20 Numéro 7 Pages 883-891  
  Mots-Clés Ageing; biological rhythm; life stages; mortality; photoperiod; physiological state transition; primate; seasonality; survival analyses  
  Résumé Ageing results from the accumulation of multifactorial damage over time. However, the temporal distribution of this damage remains unknown. In seasonal species, transitions between seasons are critical periods of massive physiological remodelling. We hypothesised that these recurrent peaks of physiological remodelling are costly in terms of survival. We tested whether captive small primates exposed to an experimentally increased frequency of seasonal transitions die sooner than individuals living under natural seasonality. The results show that experiencing one additional season per year increases the mortality hazard by a factor of 3 to 4, whereas the expected number of seasons lived is only slightly impacted by the seasonal rhythm. These results demonstrate that physiological transitions between periods of high and low metabolic activity represent a major mortality risk for seasonal organisms, which has been ignored until now.  
  Adresse Eco-Anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, UMR 7206 CNRS, MNHN, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Universites, Musee de l'Homme, 17 place du Trocadero, 75016, Paris, France  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  ISSN 1461-023X ISBN Médium  
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Auteur Manzano, A.S.; Herrel, A.; Fabre, A.-C.; Abdala, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Variation in brain anatomy in frogs and its possible bearing on their locomotor ecology Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Anatomy Revue Abrégée J Anat  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés anurans; central nervous system morphology; locomotion  
  Résumé Despite the long-standing interest in the evolution of the brain, relatively little is known about variation in brain anatomy in frogs. Yet, frogs are ecologically diverse and, as such, variation in brain anatomy linked to differences in lifestyle or locomotor behavior can be expected. Here we present a comparative morphological study focusing on the macro- and micro-anatomy of the six regions of the brain and its choroid plexus: the olfactory bulbs, the telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the rhombencephalon, and the cerebellum. We also report on the comparative anatomy of the plexus brachialis responsible for the innervation of the forelimbs. It is commonly thought that amphibians have a simplified brain organization, associated with their supposedly limited behavioral complexity and reduced motor skills. We compare frogs with different ecologies that also use their limbs in different contexts and for other functions. Our results show that brain morphology is more complex and more variable than typically assumed. Moreover, variation in brain morphology among species appears related to locomotor behavior as suggested by our quantitative analyses. Thus we propose that brain morphology may be related to the locomotor mode, at least in the frogs included in our analysis.  
  Adresse Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, UNT-Horco Molle, Instituto de Biologia Neotropical-CONICET, Tucuman, Argentina  
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  ISSN 0021-8782 ISBN Médium  
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Auteur Meillère, A.; Brischoux, F.; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Michaud, B.; Garcin, R.; Angelier, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Growing in a city: Consequences on body size and plumage quality in an urban dweller, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 160 Numéro Pages 127-138  
  Mots-Clés Urbanization; Body size; Body condition; Plumage quality; Nutritional constraint; House sparrow  
  Résumé Abstract

In urban environments, wild vertebrates have to adjust to new environmental challenges (e.g., modified resource availability, increased chemical, noise and light pollutions). However, while the pace of urbanization is constantly increasing, little is known about the ultimate consequences of urban life on the condition of free-living organisms during different life-history stages. In this study, we investigated the influence of urbanization on the condition and non-ornamental feather quality in a common wild bird species, the House sparrow (Passer domesticus). Using a national network of trained ringers, almost 600 juvenile (early post-fledging) and adult sparrows were captured at 30 sites that differ in urbanization rates. To specifically test whether urbanization differentially affect individuals during different parts of the life cycle, we used several proxies for the energetic and nutritional conditions experienced during (1) the developmental period (body size, juvenile feather quality), (2) at the time of capture (body condition), or (3) during the molting period (adult feather quality). Using this methodology, we showed for the first time that urbanization is associated with both reduced body size and feather quality in this urban-dweller species across a large geographical scale. Importantly, only tarsus length and juvenile plumage quality, both determined during development in the nest, were affected by the degree of urbanization. Conversely, body condition and plumage quality did not differ along the urbanization gradient in adults. Our results thus suggest that urban house sparrows could suffer from nutritional deficit during their development while such constraints disappear once the chicks have completed their growth.
 
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  ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Médium  
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Auteur Olivier, C.; Houssaye, A.; Jalil, N.-E.; Cubo, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre First palaeohistological inference of resting metabolic rate in an extinct synapsid, Moghreberia nmachouensis (Therapsida: Anomodontia) Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Biological Journal of the Linnean Society Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 121 Numéro 2 Pages 409-419  
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  ISSN 0024-4066 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel CNRS @ houssaye @ collection 1552  
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Auteur Paillet, Y.; Archaux, F.; Boulanger, V.; Debaive, N.; Fuhr, M.; Gilg, O.; Gosselin, F.; Guilbert, E. openurl 
  Titre Snags and large trees drive higher tree microhabitat densities in strict forest reserves. Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Forest Ecology And Management Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 389 Numéro Pages 176-186  
  Mots-Clés Cavities; Large trees; Standing deadwood; Strict forest reserves; Time since abandonment; Biodiversity; Digital storage; Ecosystems; Harvesting; Landforms; Forest reserves; Standing deadwood; Forestry; Fungi  
  Résumé Tree microhabitats (cavities, conks of fungi, bark features) play an important role for both rare and specialized species biodiversity; their preservation should therefore be targeted by biodiversity-friendly forest practices. However, when compared to other old-growth characteristics like deadwood or large trees, tree microhabitats have only recently been studied so related scientific knowledge is still relatively limited. Defining target values for microhabitat densities in managed forests is mostly based on expert knowledge rather than quantitative empirical data. We compared the densities of microhabitat-bearing trees between managed forests, where wood is still harvested, and strictly protected forest reserves, where harvesting has been abandoned, in 17 French forests (222 plots) located in both lowlands and mountain regions. We found that microhabitat densities are generally higher in strict forest reserves than in managed forests and that this difference is mainly driven by standing dead and large living trees. Though scarce, standing dead trees over-contribute to the difference observed while large trees played a lesser but significant role. In addition, contrary to results obtained for other old-growth characteristics (such as deadwood volumes), the difference between managed and strict forest reserves was higher in mountain than in lowland forests. For individual microhabitats, five out of eleven microhabitats in mountains and only one in lowland (woodpecker cavities) were significantly more numerous in strict forest reserves than in managed forests. Finally, total microhabitat density and density of specific microhabitats such as cavities and bark features increased with time since the last harvest. This increase was also mainly supported by standing dead microhabitat-bearing trees. Compared to previous studies in comparable contexts, the densities we estimated were generally higher; however, such comparisons could only be made for the most documented microhabitat types. Our results support the idea that management abandonment favours the abundance and diversity of microhabitats. However, microhabitat dynamics remain poorly known and only long-term monitoring will help understand underlying mechanisms of recruitment. In the meantime, our results may inspire forest managers in their application of daily biodiversity-friendly practices  
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Auteur Parmentier, E; Raick, X; Lecchini, D; Boyle, K; Van Wassenbergh, S; Bertucci, F; Kéver, L url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Unusual sound production mechanism in the triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Balistidae) Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Experimental Biology Revue Abrégée J Exp Biol  
  Volume 220 Numéro Pages 186-193  
  Mots-Clés Acoustic; sound production; swimbladder  
  Résumé The ability to produce sounds has been known for decades in Balistidae. Sounds of many species have been recorded and a variety of sound producing mechanisms have been proposed including teeth stridulation, collision of buccal teeth, and movements of the fins. The best supported hypothesis involves movements of the pectoral fins against the lateral parts of the swimbladder called a drumming membrane. In this study, we describe for the first time the sounds made by the Blackbar triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus that sound like short drum rolls with an average duration of 85 ms, 193 Hz dominant frequency and 136 dB SPL level at 3 cm distance. Sounds are a series of pulses that result from alternate sweeping movements of the right and left pectoral fins, which push a system of three scutes that are forced against the swimbladder wall. Pulses from each fin occur in consecutive pairs. High-speed videos indicate that each pulse consists in two cycles. The first part of each cycle corresponds to the inward buckling of the scutes whereas the second part of the cycle corresponds to an apparent passive recoil of the scutes and swimbladder wall. This novel sound production mechanism is likely found in many members of Balistidae because these peculiar scutes are found in other species in the family. Comparison of sound characteristics from fishes of different sizes shows that dominant frequency decreases with size in juveniles but not in adults.  
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  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Médium  
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Auteur Ponge, JF url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Evolution and transitions in complexity: the science of hierarchical organization in nature. By Gerard A. J. M. Jagers op Akkerhuis Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Bioscience Revue Abrégée Bioscience  
  Volume 67 Numéro 7 Pages 672-674  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3568 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1571  
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Auteur Sarthou, C; Pavoine, S; Gasc, JP; de Massary, JC; Ponge, JF url  doi
openurl 
  Titre From inselberg to inselberg: floristic patterns across scales in French Guiana (South America) Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Flora Revue Abrégée Flora  
  Volume 229 Numéro Pages 147-158  
  Mots-Clés French Guiana; inselbergs; RLQ and fourth-corner analysis; endemism; human use; savannas  
  Résumé Granitic outcrop vegetation was compared in 22 inselbergs of French Guiana, South America, using RLQ and fourth-corner analyses to identify the main relationships between environmental gradients and plant traits. At the scale of the whole territory the distribution of species and species traits was mostly driven by a spatially-structured gradient embracing regional climate (annual rainfall), forest matrix (canopy openness), and inselberg features (altitude, shape, habitats, summit forest, degree of epiphytism, fire events). Biogeographic, environmental and past historical factors contribute to explain the variation observed at coarse scale and two groups of inselbergs are identified. A first group occupies the southern peneplain in a semi-open forest matrix and exhibits a higher representation of suffrutescent species and climbers, a lower representation of upright shrubs, a lower degree of Guiana Shield endemism, and a higher incidence of human use and autochory. All these features suggest an adaptation to more disturbed environments linked to past climate changes and savannization and to human influences. A second group, characterized by opposite plant traits, occupies the northern part of French Guiana and the far south within a closed forest matrix. Within archipelagos (inselbergs at less than 7 km distance), C-score and Mantel tests revealed a random co-occurrence of plant species and an increase of floristic dissimilarity with distance without any concomitant change in plant traits, respectively, suggesting that spatially-structured stochastic factors (limitation by dispersal) were the driving force of vegetation change at fine scale.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé English Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0367-2530 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1536  
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Auteur Secondi, J.; Martin, M.; Goven, D.; Mege, P.; Sourice, S.; Thery, M. openurl 
  Titre Habitat-related variation in the plasticity of a UV-sensitive photoreceptor over a small spatial scale in the palmate newt Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Journal Of Evolutionary Biology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 30 Numéro 6 Pages 1229-1235  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Plastic phenotypes are expected to be favoured in heterogeneous environments

compared with stable environments. Sensory systems are interesting

to test this theory because they are costly to produce and support, and

strong fitness costs are expected if they are not tuned to the local environment.

Consistently, the visual system of several species changes with the

conditions experienced during early development. However, there is little

information on whether the amplitude of the change, that is the reaction

norm, differs between visual environments. Given the rapid change of many

ecosystems, especially eutrophication for aquatic habitats, it is crucial to

determine down to which spatial scale, change in the reaction norm occurs.

We addressed this issue by quantifying the between-habitat variation in the

expression of a UV-sensitive opsin in a newt. In western France, this species

breeds in ponds of small forest patches, where water filters out UV, and in

agricultural ponds where UV transmission is variable. We raised larvae from

both habitats with or without exposure to UV. Opsin expression was

reduced in larvae from agricultural habitats when raised without UV,

whereas it was low in larvae from forest ponds under all lighting conditions.

Thus, the variation in the reaction norm of opsin expression was lower in

stable filtering environments and higher in heterogeneous environments. Its

variation occurred between habitats across a small spatial scale. We discuss

the hypotheses for this pattern and for the maintenance of residual opsin

expression in forest populations.
 
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  ISSN 1010-061x ISBN Médium  
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Auteur Slimani N., Guilbert E., El Ayni F., Jrad A., Boumaiza M. & Thioulouse J. openurl 
  Titre The use of STATICO and COSTATIS, two exploratory three-ways analysis methods – An application to the ecology of aquatic heteroptera in the Medjerda watershed (Tunisia). Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Environmental and Ecological Statistics Revue Abrégée  
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