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Auteur Allemand, R.; Bardet, N.; Houssaye, A.; Vincent, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre New plesiosaurian specimens (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) of Goulmima (Southern Morocco) Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Cretaceous Research Revue Abrégée Cretaceous Research  
  Volume 82 Numéro Pages 83-98  
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  ISSN 0195-6671 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel CNRS @ houssaye @ collection 1684  
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Auteur Dubos, N.; Viol, I.L.; Robert, A.; Teplitsky, C.; Ghislain, M.; Dehorter, O.; Julliard, R.; Henry, P.Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Disentangling the effects of spring anomalies in climate and net primary production on body size of temperate songbirds Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Ecography Revue Abrégée Ecography  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
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  ISSN 0906-7590 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ henry @ collection 1699  
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Auteur Joimel, S.; Grard, B.; Auclerc, A.; Hedde, M.; Le Doaré, N.; Salmon, S.; Chenu, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Are Collembola “flying” onto green roofs? Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Ecological Engineering Revue Abrégée Ecological Engineering  
  Volume 111 Numéro Pages 117-124  
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  ISSN 0925-8574 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel mnhn @ ssalmon @ collection 1687  
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Auteur Larrieu, L.; Paillet, Y.; Winter, S.; Bütler, R.; Kraus, D.; Krumm, F.; Lachat, T.; Michel, A. K.; Regnery, B.; Vandekerkhove, K. openurl 
  Titre Tree related microhabitats in temperate and Mediterranean European forests: a hierarchical typology for inventory standardization Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Ecological Indicators Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 84 Numéro Pages 194-207  
  Mots-Clés Biodiversity conservation; Integrative forest management; Monitoring Forest inventory; Tree structure; Wildlife habitat relationship  
  Résumé Tree related Microhabitats (hereafter TreMs) have been widely recognized as important substrates and structures for biodiversity in both commercial and protected forests and are receiving increasing attention in management, conservation and research. How to record TreMs in forest inventories is a question of recent interest since TreMs represent potential indirect indicators for the specialized species that use them as substrates or habitat at least for a part of their life-cycle. However, there is a wide range of differing interpretations as to what

exactly constitutes a TreM and what specific features should be surveyed in the field.

In an attempt to harmonize future TreM inventories, we propose a definition and a typology of TreM types borne by living and dead standing trees in temperate and Mediterranean forests in Europe. Our aim is to provide users with definitions which make unequivocal TreM determination possible. Our typology is structured around seven basic forms according to morphological characteristics and biodiversity relevance: i) cavities lato sensu, ii) tree injuries and exposed wood, iii) crown deadwood, iv) excrescences, v) fruiting bodies of saproxylic fungi and fungi-like organisms, vi) epiphytic and epixylic structures, and vii) exudates. The typology is then further detailed into 15 groups and 47 types with a hierarchical structure allowing the typology to be used for different purposes. The typology, along with guidelines for standardized recording we propose, is an unprecedented reference tool to make data on TreMs comparable across different regions, forest types and tree species, and should greatly improve the reliability of TreM monitoring. It provides the basis for compiling these data and may help to improve the reliability of reporting and evaluation of the conservation value of forests. Finally, our work emphasizes the need for further research on TreMs to better understand their dynamics and their link with biodiversity in order to more fully integrate TreM monitoring into forest management.
 
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ yoan.paillet @ collection 1590  
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Auteur Lengyel, S.; Kosztyi, B.; Schmeller, D.S.; Henry, P.-Y.; Kotarac, M.; Lin, Y.-P.; Henle, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Evaluating and benchmarking biodiversity monitoring: Metadata-based indicators for sampling design, sampling effort and data analysis Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Ecological Indicators Revue Abrégée Ecological Indicators  
  Volume 85 Numéro Pages 624-633  
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  ISSN 1470160X ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ henry @ collection 1698  
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Auteur McCafferty, D.; Pandraud, G.; Gilles, J.; Fabra-Puchol, M.; Henry, P.-Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Animal thermoregulation: a review of insulation, physiology and behaviour relevant to temperature control in buildings Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Bioinspiration & Biomimetics Revue Abrégée Bioinspir Biomim  
  Volume 13 Numéro 1 Pages 011001  
  Mots-Clés animals; building; energy use; insulation; temperature control; thermoregulation  
  Résumé Birds and mammals have evolved many thermal adaptations that are relevant for bioinspired design of temperature control systems and energy management in buildings. Similar to many buildings, endothermic animals generate internal metabolic heat, are well insulated, regulate their temperature within set limits, modify microclimate and adjust thermal exchange with their environment. Here, we review the major components of animal thermoregulation in endothermic birds and mammals that are pertinent for building engineering, in a world where climate is changing and reduction in energy use is needed. In animals, adjustment of insulation together with physiological and behavioural responses to changing environmental conditions produce fine-tuned spatial and temporal regulation of body temperature, while also minimizing energy expenditure. These biological adaptations are characteristically flexible, allowing animals to alter their body temperature to hourly, daily or annual demands for energy. They provide examples of how buildings could become more thermally reactive to meteorological fluctuations, capitalising on dynamic thermal materials and system properties. Based on this synthesis, we suggest that heat transfer modelling could be used to simulate these flexible biomimetic features and assess their success in reducing energy costs while maintaining thermal comfort for given building types.  
  Adresse Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, FRANCE  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ henry @ collection 1697  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Berg, B; Ponge, JF; Kemmers, RH url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 1, article 2: Essential bases – Functional considerations Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 22-41  
  Mots-Clés humus; soil functioning; SOM; SOC; litter; biodegradation; soil ecology; Humusica; decomposition and temperature  
  Résumé Humusica 1 and 2 Applied Soil Ecology Special issues are field guides for humipedon classification. Contrary to other similar manuals dedicated to soil, the objects that one can describe with these guides are living, dynamic, functional, and relatively independent soil units. This is the reason to why the authors dedicated the whole article 2 to functional considerations even before readers could go in the field and face the matter to be classified. Experienced lectors can overstep many of the sections reported in this article. If the titles of sections �1. A functional classification“, ”2. What is a humus system?“and ”3. Energetic considerations in terrestrial systems� stimulate the reader�s curiosity, then we suggest to pass through them. Otherwise, only section �4. Climatic, plant litter, or nutritional constraints?� is crucial. Readers will understand how the soil works in terms of litter and carbon accumulation, which one(s) among climatic, vegetation, or geological factors intervene and strongly affect the formation of terrestrial (oxygenated) soils. The article concludes with a debate about a tergiversated question: can temperature influence humus decomposition? Preceding statements were used for explaining how the biological soil net can store in the soil a maximum of energy in the form of SOM, by raising a plateau partially independent of climatic conditions.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé English Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
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  ISSN 0929-1393 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes WOS:000417356200003 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1670  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Bolzonella, C; Lowenfels, J; Ponge, JF; Bouché, M; Saha, D; Kukal, SS; Fritz, I; Savory, A; Blouin, M; Sartori, L; Tatti, D; Kellermann, LA; Trachsel, P; Burgos, S; Minasny, B; Fukuoka, M url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 2, article 19: Techno humus systems and global change – Conservation agriculture and 4/1000 proposal Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 271-296  
  Mots-Clés Homo sapiens; Charles Darwin; Masanobu Fukuoka; Allan Savory; Jeff Lowenfels; Marcel Bouché; Matt Damon; Humusica; natural farming; earthworms; humus; soil; peat; agriculture; organic agriculture; conservation agriculture; soil organic carbon; soil aggregates; soil C sequestration  
  Résumé Philosophy can overlap pedology. It is not casual that life begins and finishes in the soil. We separated the concepts of Humipedon, Copedon and Lithopedon. Some sections were dedicated to the founders of the movement for a new type of agriculture (agroecology). They simply proclaim to accompany the process of natural evolution instead of spending a lot of energy in hunting competitor organisms with pesticides or boosting the soil with mineral fertilisations and tillage. The core of the article is built on a biological concept of soil and shows researches supporting this view. After pointing to the soil structure and illustrating its natural genesis, explaining which cultural conditions may improve its quality, we finished the article with economic considerations, combining at planet level a program of soil restoration with a greenhouse effect mitigation. What a reader should have in mind at the end of the article: soil organisms have a prominent positive influence on soil structure and fertility; their mass is proportional to the soil organic matter quantity; it is possible to contrast the climate warming using the soil as sink of C. We estimated that the Agro Humipedons of a European economically active region could sink about 13 or 20% of its emissions, switching from conventional to minimum or no tillage during the coming 40 years. At planetary level, a well programmed 4 per 1000 action can even be more efficacious and compensate a part of the global greenhouse gas effect.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé English Titre Original  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1665  
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Auteur Zanella, A; De Waal, R; Van Delft, B; Ponge, JF; Ferronato, C; De Nobili, M; Le Bayon, RC; Andreetta, A; Kõlli, R url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 2, article 10: Histic humus systems and forms – Key of classification Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 154-161  
  Mots-Clés humus; Histic humus; Histic humus classification; Humusica; peat; moor  
  Résumé This paper corresponds to an illustrated field key of classification of Histic humipedon. Vocabulary and diagnostic horizon definitions are in Humusica 2, article 9. The process of classification can follow a step by step way or simply be realised choosing the right diagnostic horizon on a table and composing the whole profile as in a game of construction. Examples of real profiles are given for comparison with the ones people can find in the field.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1692  
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Auteur Zanella, A; De Waal, R; Van Delft, B; Ponge, JF; Jabiol, B; De Nobili, M; Ferronato, C; Gobat, JM; Vacca, A url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 2, Article 9: Histic humus systems and forms – Specific terms, diagnostic horizons and overview Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 148-153  
  Mots-Clés humus; Histic humus; peat; submerged soils; submerged humipedon classification  
  Résumé This paper presents the specific terms of vocabulary and diagnostic horizons necessary for a field classification of submerged Histic humipedons (peats, moors). It is simply an exposition of definitions placed side by side with photographic samples, with rather practical interest. The knowledge reported here is mandatory for people wanting to use the key of classification of these humipedons presented in Humusica 2, article 10. The paper illustrates with schemes the spatial and functional relationships between diagnostic horizons of different Histic humipedons.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé English Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
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  ISSN 0929-1393 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1691  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ferronato, C; De Nobili, M; Vianello, G; Vittori Antisari, L; Ponge, JF; De Waal, R; Van Delft, B; Vacca, A url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 2, article 12: Aqueous humipedons – Tidal and subtidal humus systems and forms Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 170-180  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Soils formed in tidal and subtidal environments often do not show sufficient accumulation of undecomposed plant tissues to be classified as Histosols. In this article we present a first attempt of morpho-functional classification of aquatic humus, a revision of the terminology and of the diagnostic features employed by pedologists in the description of aqueous and submerged soils, and we finally suggest some criteria to be used during field investigations. According to the proposed criteria, Redoxi, Reductitidal, and Subtidal humus forms can be distinguished in aquatic systems, avoiding any possible confusion with Histic, Epihisto, Hydro and Para Anaero/Archaeo or Crusto humus forms. The article concludes with some examples of classification, including prefixes for detailing particular intergrades with the other groups of humipedons and with the discussion of the contribution of algae and seagrasses to the formation of Crusto forms.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1693  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Geisen, S; Ponge, JF; Jagers, G; Benbrook, C; Dilli, T; Vacca, A; Kwiatkowska-Malina, J; Aubert, M; Fusaro, S; Nobili, MD; Lomolino, G; Gomiero, T url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 2, article 17: Techno humus systems and global change – Three crucial questions Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 237-253  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Some soil scientists or biologists (14, one preferring anonymity) answered the three following questions:

1. Why is organic food better (tastes better, is healthier, richer in nutrients, contains less pesticide, etc.) than food produced with hydroponic or intensive farming techniques?

2. In a humipedon, are soil functioning, biodiversity and carbon content three interdependent and intersected aspects of a single ecosystem? In other words, can we treat these aspects as if they were inseparable in a

humipedon?

3. Are agriculture and civilization (the society, culture, and way of life) interconnected?

All scientists expressed affirmative answers. Nuances or in depth information were also furnished. The article allows to understand the real �agronomic challenge� that the predicted Global Change might represent for humanity.
 
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1664  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Briones, MJI url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 1, article 8: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Biological activity and soil aggregates, space-time dynamics Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 103-137  
  Mots-Clés humus; soil biodiversity; soil animals; soil aggregates; soil dynamics; soil earthworms; soil arthropods; soil functioning; SOC; SOM; Humusica; humus classification  
  Résumé Litter biodegradation is a process of life. Organisms feed, reproduce, die and decompose. Decomposition is essential, and it is never complete. In addition, the elements generated by this process become new bricks for building more complex structures in a dynamically evolving environment. In this article, we show some pictures of the main actors in litter biodegradation. We also try to associate living organisms to the soil aggregates they generate, furnishing photographs of organisms and aggregates visible in the field even with a naked eye. The transformation of dead bodies, organs or cells and droppings in the soil ecosystem is influenced by biotic and abiotic factors and hence it must be considered as a dynamic, never ending, local evolution. Instead of focusing on specific data, we have tried to present the involved phenomena to a non-specialised public (naturalists, students, teachers, etc.) through the use of graphical schemes, indicating arrows, photographs, and drawings. In the end, readers will be aware that things are not as simple as expected, that static models cannot give a precise image of a reality in constant evolution. The article can be inspected as a photo album, read as a comic strip or used as a dictionary. The authors aim to illustrate rather than to explain the relationships between humus systems, climate and biodiversity.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0929-1393 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes WOS:000417356200009 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1678  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; De Waal, R; Ferronato, C; De Nobili, M; Juilleret, J url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 1, article 3: Essential bases – Quick look at the classification Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 42-55  
  Mots-Clés humus; humus classification; Terrestrial humus systems; Histic humus systems; Aqueous humus systems; Para humus systems; Anthropogenic humus systems  
  Résumé Terms and concepts have been defined in Humusica 1, article 1 and the functioning of humus systems has been discussed in Humusica 1, article 2. Here a short overview of the matter, showing humus systems in their environment, is provided for beginners, before making field investigations. The present work is intended as a part of the field manual (Humusica 1 and 2), an illustrated, easy-to-use application tool for humus systems classification, helpful even for not (yet) expert pedologists. The present article gives also a fast look at the classification, sharing Terrestrial, Histic, Aqueous and Para humus systems, every group being defined by its characteristics set in synthetic tables, and suggests a step-by-step approach allowing everyone to classify and investigate humus systems and forms.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  ISSN 0929-1393 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes WOS:000417356200004 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1671  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; De Waal, R; Van Delft, B; De Nobili, M; Ferronato, C; Vittori Antisari, L; Vianello, G; Jabiol, B url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 2, article 11: Histic humus systems and forms – Epihisto intergrades and dynamics Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 162-169  
  Mots-Clés Histosols; soil water dynamics; humus; biodegradation; peats; wetlands  
  Résumé The processes of formation and evolution of Histic humipedons are related to the soil/water dynamics. In a first part of the paper we present diagnostic features and horizons necessary for describing the intergrade humipedons existing between Histic and Hydro humipedons. Called Epihistic (“superficial” Histic), these humipedons are very common and help in better defining the relationships between plant and soil in semi-terrestrial environments. In a second part of the paper we set some information about biological activities and correlated environmental frames of Histic and Epihisto units. The article concludes with dynamic relationships between humipedons, describing them in fen or bog ecosystems, allowing the interpretation of complex wetlands. The present manuscript updates the description and classification of semi-terrestrial humus forms previously published by Zanella et al. (2011a, 2011b).  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ ponge @ collection 1690  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Fritz, I; Pietrasiak, N; Matteodo, M; Nadporozhskaya, M; Juilleret, J; Tatti, D; Le Bayon, RC; Rotschild, L; Mancinelli, R url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 2, article 13: Para humus systems and forms Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 181-199  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Planet Earth is covered by very common Terrestrial (not submersed), Histic (peats) and Aqueous (tidal) humipedons. Beside these typical topsoils there are other more discrete humipedons, generated by the interaction of mineral matter with microorganisms, fungi and small plants (algae, lichens and mosses). In some cases roots and their symbionts can be a driving force of litter biotransformation, in other cases a large amount of decaying wood accommodates particular organisms which interfere with and change the normal process of litter decomposition. Particular microorganisms inhabit submerged sediments or extreme environments and can generate specialised humipedons with grey-black or even astonishingly flashing colours. We describe all these common but still unknown humipedons, defining diagnostic horizons and proposing a first morpho-functional classification, which still has to be improved. At the end of the article, the hypothesis of evolving and interconnected Cosmo, Aero, Hydro, Humi, Co, Litho and Geopedons (related to the microbiota) is formulated as a speculative curiosity.  
  Adresse Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 avenue du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé English Titre Original  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Gobat, JM; Juilleret, J; Blouin, M; Aubert, M; Chertov, O; Rubio, JL url  doi
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  Titre Humusica 1, article 1: Essential bases – Vocabulary Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 10-21  
  Mots-Clés Aqueous humus systems; Humusica; humus form classification; humus system; humus vocabulary; soil classification; soil concept  
  Résumé The Special Issue Humusica 1 corresponds to a field guide for the classification of terrestrial humus systems and forms. The present first article of the issue defines vocabulary, objects and concepts necessary for: (a) field investigation, (b) understanding the process of classification, (c) assigning ecological significance to the defined morpho-functional units, (d) discussing and exchanging scientific data about humus systems. The article starts with general considerations, as the necessity humans have to classify natural objects for sharing ideas and information on them. Then the article focuses on soil as functional element of every ecosystem. Historical and recently published international definitions of soil are reported and compared to the more biological definition of the authors of the paper. Once the concept “soil” is clarified, the soil profile is shared in three new sub-units, for further specialised investigations. The superficial and organic-rich sub-unit is labelled Humipedon. In the rest of the article, authors explain the different constituents of a general humipedon, introducing even novice soil scientists to field practice and topsoil observation. A general overview of the variety of humipedons that one may expect to find all over planet Earth, classified in humus systems and forms, concludes the article.  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Guercini, S; Rumor, C; Nold, F; Sambo, P; Gobbi, V; Schimmer, C; Chaabane, C; Mouchard, ML; Garcia, E; Van Deventer, P url  doi
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  Titre Humusica 2, article 16: Techno humus systems and recycling of waste Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 220-236  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Techno humus systems correspond to man-made topsoils under prominent man influence. They may be purposely conceived for supporting agricultural activities or dumping of waste products, sometimes abandoned to an unknown evolution. Both categories needed a more scientific frame. This is the reason we classified them as morpho-functional humus systems. Improving agricultural soils with organic waste products is an ancestral practice. We present four examples of Techno humus systems purposely created for supporting plant growth. Considering a simple home-made compost pile, we give a few basic notions about the biological functioning of these artificial humus systems. Humipedon functioning and structuration are similar to those observed in natural humus systems. Using even animal manure, we illustrate how to manage larger compost piles of waste for application in farming areas. Composting waste that contains animal proteins needs a more careful measurement of the temperature of the pile and a longer period of elevated temperature in the core of the pile. Mulching of pruning residues is presented in a large urban context. The use of mulch must take into account the quality and composition of woody material. The lack of nutrients in some residues has to be compensated by a moderate use of appropriate mineral fertilizers. Municipal solid waste, anaerobic digestion residues (grape remains) and spent mushroom compost, eventually mixed with mineral fertilizers, have been tested in horticulture. Benefits and drawbacks are listed for each experiment, with the evolution of carbon storage along 8 years of horticultural practice. Finally, we present an example of “dump” humus system. Mine tailing wastes represent a huge problem in many countries. Pointing to their microbial activity, we show that they must be seen as manageable living humipedons, not as piles of inert rocky material.  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Hager, H; Pignatti, S; Galbraith, J; Chertov, O; Andreetta, A; De Nobili, M url  doi
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  Titre Humusica 2, article 18: Techno humus systems and global change – Greenhouse effect, soil and agriculture Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 2 Pages 254-270  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé The article is structured in six sections. A first section is dedicated to the state of the art concerning climatic change and agriculture. Internet-available IPCC maps and cartographic documents made by scientific research centres were used for illustrating forecasted climatic changes. In sections 2 and 3, bibliographic evidences were collected for supporting a vegetation and soil co-evolution theory. Humus, soil and vegetation systems are presented at planetary level in many synthetic maps. In sections 4, 5 and 6 the authors discussed the human influence on soil evolution during the Anthropocene. It appears that humans detected and used Mull humus systems all over planet Earth for crop production and pasture. Human pressure impoverished these humus systems, which tend to evolve toward Amphi or Moder systems, losing their natural biostructure and carbon content.  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Jabiol, B; Sartori, G; Kolb, E; Gobat, JM; Le Bayon, RC; Aubert, M; De Waal, R; Van Delft, B; Vacca, A; Serra, G; Chersich, S; Andreetta, A; Cools, N; Englisch, M; Hager, H; Katzensteiner, K; Brêthes, A; De Nicola, C; Testi, A; Bernier, N; Graefe, U; Juilleret, J; Banas, D; Garlato, A; Obber, S; Galvan, P; Zampedri, R; Frizzera, L; Tomasi, M; Menardi, R; Fontanella, F; Filoso, C; Dibona, R; Bolzonella, C; Pizzeghello, D; Carletti, P; Langohr, R; Cattaneo, D; Nardi, S; Nicolini, G; Viola, F url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 1, article 4: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Specific terms and diagnostic horizons Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 56-74  
  Mots-Clés Anthropogenic humus systems; humus classification; Terrestrial humus; humus diagnostic horizon; humic component; recognizable remains; zoogenically transformed material; Humusica; humipedon  
  Résumé Knowledge of a little number of specific terms is necessary to investigate and describe humipedons. This “new vocabulary” allows individuating and circumscribing particular diagnostic horizons, which are the fundamental bricks of the humipedon. Few “components” defined by specific terms characterize a specific “humipedon horizon”; few “humipedon horizons” compose a given “humus form” and some similar “humus forms” are grouped in a functional “humus system”. In this article, specific terms and humus horizons are listed and explained one by one. Field difficulties are illustrated and resolved. The aim of the article is to present in a manner as simple as possible how to distinguish in the field the soil structures allowing a morpho-functional classification of terrestrial (aerated, not submerged) humipedons.  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Jabiol, B; Sartori, G; Kolb, E; Le Bayon, RC; Gobat, JM; Aubert, M; De Waal, R; Van Delft, B; Vacca, A; Serra, G; Chersich, S; Andreetta, A; Kõlli, R; Brun, JJ; Cools, N; Englisch, M; Hager, H; Katzensteiner, K; Brêthes, A; De Nicola, C; Testi, A; Bernier, N; Graefe, U; Wolf, U; Juilleret, J; Garlato, A; Obber, S; Galvan, P; Zampedri, R; Frizzera, L; Tomasi, M; Banas, D; Bureau, F; Tatti, D; Salmon, S; Menardi, R; Fontanella, F; Carraro, V; Pizzeghello, D; Concheri, G; Squartini, A; Cattaneo, D; Scattolin, L; Nardi, S; Nicolini, G; Viola, F url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 1, article 5: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Keys of classification of humus systems and forms Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 75-86  
  Mots-Clés humus; humus systems; humus forms; humus classification; Terrestrial humus forms; Humusica  
  Résumé This article is an as simple as possible key of classification of terrestrial (aerobic, not submerged) topsoils (organic and organic-mineral series of soil horizons). Based on the introduction exposed in Humusica 1, article 1, and using vocabulary and definitions listed in article 4, a classification is proposed for better understanding the biological functioning of the soil, partially disclosing the process of litter digestion. Five types of terrestrial topsoils, called terrestrial humus systems, are described and illustrated with the help of photographs. Within each humus system, 3-4 humus forms are also revealed, corresponding to similar series of soil horizons generated in a relatively homogeneous environment whose range of ecological factors is not so large to overstep and cause the genesis of another different humus system. The article ends with a figure that shows the relationship between Tangel and Amphi humus systems, and a dichotomous key of classification that one can easily print and bring in the field for practicing humus classification.  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Juilleret, J; De Waal, R; Le Bayon, RC; Vacca, A; Andreetta, A url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 1, Article 6: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Hydro intergrades Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 87-91  
  Mots-Clés humus; Hydro intergrades; soil hydromorphic properties; hydromorphic soil; Humusica  
  Résumé In this article, we present the Terrestrial intergrades from never or only few days submersed humipedons, without permanent hydromorphic signs, until humipedons with presence of signs of partial asphyxia. Specific terms are defined and diagnostic horizons illustrated, both with the help of text explanations and photographs. The article ends with a table working as a classification field key.  
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Auteur Zanella, A; Ponge, JF; Matteodo, M url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Humusica 1, article 7: Terrestrial humus systems and forms – Field practice and sampling problems Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Applied Soil Ecology Revue Abrégée Appl. Soil Ecol.  
  Volume 122 Numéro Part 1 Pages 92-102  
  Mots-Clés humus; humus systems; soil field practice; soil sampling; soil functioning  
  Résumé The present paper should be read after the six preceding articles dealing with fundamental concepts, vocabulary, principles and keys of our morpho-functional classification of humus systems and forms, the whole book being conceived as a guide for field studies. It now concerns seven questions which may arise when passing from knowledge to practice or, in other terms, from concepts to real things. In the field, humipedons can differ from reported photographs. Trees, bushes and/or herbs interfere with soil functioning and may generate different humipedons even over a relatively small surface. More generally a researcher must select a few unit plots representative of a given natural floor for defining the frame of his investigation. In this article, authors present some practical and theoretical landmarks and illustrate some solutions for studying humipedons in common natural sites, and replacing them within ecosystem dynamics.  
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