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Auteur Abourachid, A.; Fabre, A.-C.; Cornette, R.; Hofling, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Foot shape in arboreal birds: two morphological patterns for the same pincer-like tool Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Anatomy Revue Abrégée J Anat  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés feet; functional morphology; grasping; osteology  
  Résumé The feet are the only contact between the body and the substrate in limbed animals and as such they provide a crucial interface between the animal and its environment. This is especially true for bipedal and arboreal species living in a complex three-dimensional environment that likely induces strong selection on foot morphology. In birds, foot morphology is highly variable, with different orientations of the toes, making it a good model for the study of the role of functional, developmental, and phylogenetic constraints in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Our data on the proportions of the phalanges analyzed in a phylogenetic context show that two different morphological patterns exist that depend mainly on habitat and toe orientation. In the anisodactyl foot, the hallux is the only backward-oriented toe and is enlarged in climbing species and reduced in terrestrial ones. Moreover, a proximo-distal gradient in phalanx size is observed depending on the degree of terrestriality. In the two other cases (heterodactyl and zygodactyl) that have two toes that point backward, the hallux is rather small in contrast to the other backward-pointing toe, which is enlarged. The first pattern is convergent and common among tetrapods and follows rules of skeletal development. The second pattern is unique for the clade and under muscle-morphogenetic control. In all cases, the functional result is the same tool, a pincer-like foot.  
  Adresse Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8782 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes PMID:28542878 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel mnhn @ acfabre @ collection 1539  
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