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Auteur Arias, M.; le Poul, Y.; Chouteau, M.; Boisseau, R.; Rosser, N.; Thery, M.; Llaurens, V. url 
openurl 
  Titre Crossing fitness valleys: empirical estimation of a fitness landscape associated with polymorphic mimicry Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2016 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Revue Abrégée Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 283 Numéro 1829 Pages  
  Mots-Clés aposematism; dominance; generalization; heterozygote; linkage disequilibrium; passion-vine butterfly  
  Résumé Characterizing fitness landscapes associated with polymorphic adaptive traits enables investigation of mechanisms allowing transitions between fitness peaks. Here, we explore how natural selection can promote genetic mechanisms preventing heterozygous phenotypes from falling into non-adaptive valleys. Polymorphic mimicry is an ideal system to investigate such fitness landscapes, because the direction of selection acting on complex mimetic colour patterns can be predicted by the local mimetic community composition. Using more than 5000 artificial butterflies displaying colour patterns exhibited by the polymorphic Mullerian mimic Heliconius numata, we directly tested the role of wild predators in shaping fitness landscapes. We compared predation rates on mimetic phenotypes (homozygotes at the supergene controlling colour pattern), intermediate phenotypes (heterozygotes), exotic morphs (absent from the local community) and palatable cryptic phenotypes. Exotic morphs were significantly more attacked than local morphs, highlighting predators' discriminatory capacities. Overall, intermediates were attacked twice as much as local homozygotes, suggesting the existence of deep fitness valleys promoting strict dominance and reduced recombination between supergene alleles. By including information on predators' colour perception, we also showed that protection on intermediates strongly depends on their phenotypic similarity to homozygous phenotypes and that ridges exist between similar phenotypes, which may facilitate divergence in colour patterns.  
  Adresse Institut Systematique, Evolution, Biodiversite, UMR 7205 MNHN-CNRS-EPHE-UPMC- Sorbonne universites, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Batiment d'entomologie, CP050, 57, rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes PMID:27122560; PMCID:PMC4855388 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MNHN @ hackert @ collection 1530  
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