||The Lophopidae are found in South America, Africa, Australia, India and Southeast Asia. This distribution appears to be typically Gondwanan, triggered by tectonic events beginning over 100 Ma. However, within the Fulgoromorpha, the lophopids are considered to be relatively recently. In this study, biological, geological and phylogenetic information is evaluated to provide a parsimonious explanation for the distribution of the group and its geographic region of ancestral origin. The Lophopidae can be divided into four monophyletic groups. The ancestors of two groups appear to have originated somewhere along the western Pacific island are system. Another group appears to have an origin in Southeast Asia. A reliable explanation for the ancestral origin of the fourth group was not possible because it consists of only one genus present in Central and South America. A biogeographic map of the two groups of lophids of the western Pacific island are is concordant with their phylogeny based on biological and morphological data. Based on this finding, the best explanation for the origin and evolution of the Lophopidae and their current distribution of these lophopids is through vicariance. Similar types of eco-evolutionary events explain radiation and distribution of the Lophopidae, in general. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.